Grow Grow an active user base. Notifications Engage with users at the right moment. App Indexing. App Indexing Drive organic search traffic to your app. Dynamic Links. Dynamic Links Send users to the right place inside your app. Invites Empower your users to share your app. Adwords Acquire users with the reach of Google.
App Install Ads. App Install Ads Reach more users through app promotion. Earn Maximize your app revenue. AdMob Drive more in-app purchases and maximize ad revenues. Use location to power context Respond to where users are and what they're doing. Enrich your app with high-accuracy location reporting, geofencing, and activity recognition. Location Awareness. Stream content to TVs and speakers Let users send audio and visual content to any Cast-enabled TV or speaker and control it from their phones or tablets. Google Cast. Add social features to your games Enhance your games and learn more about your players.
Add achievements, leaderboards, saved games, real-time multiplayer, and more. Google Play Game Services. Enhance your app for fitness Participate in the fitness ecosystem and add high-engagement features to your app. Analyze raw sensor data or take advantage of shared fitness data.
Google Fit. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments "traces" each time an application is launched. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence , which Google finds more suitable for the Android's overall licensing model.
Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. In current versions of Android, " Toybox ", a collection of command-line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn't provide a command-line interface by default , is used since the release of Marshmallow replacing a similar "Toolbox" collection found in previous Android versions. Android's source code is released by Google under an open source license , and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.
Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this. As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the " jailbreaking " of mobile devices,  manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC ,  Motorola ,  Samsung   and Sony ,  providing support and encouraging development.
As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders , similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so. They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.
GCHQ has, according to The Guardian , a wiki -style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each. The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk. Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from —, detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including Android.
Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user. Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In August , Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches. Google also wrote that "Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.
Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption. As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn't work".
What does "compatibility" mean?
And a bunch of broken promises". They also wrote that "About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year", stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers. Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the "Knox" project.
Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare , Google Latitude , Facebook Places , and to deliver location-based ads.
Android applications run in a sandbox , an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps. It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely. This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8. Since February , Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store.
Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time. Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time.
Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach. In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them. The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled. Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself.
Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect. Nova wrote that "The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe. By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe. The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast , AVG , Bitdefender , ESET , F-Secure , Kaspersky , Lookout , McAfee formerly Intel Security , Norton , Sophos , and Trend Micro , revealed that "the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks", and that "the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity".
In August , Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May ,   a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device,   with an Android app for the service released in December. On October 8, Google announced new Google Play store requirements to combat over-sharing of potentially sensitive information, including call and text logs. The issue stems from the fact that many apps request permissions to access user's personal information even if this information is not needed for the app to function and some users unquestionably grant these permissions.
Alternatively, a permission might be listed in the app manifest as required as opposed to optional and app would not install unless user grants the permission; user can withdraw any, even required, permission from any app in the device settings after app installation, but few users do this. Google promised to work with developers and create exceptions if their apps require Phone or SMS permissions for "core app functionality". The new policies enforcement started on January 6, , 90 days after policy announcement on October 8, The API level requirement might combat practice of app developers bypassing some permission screens by specifying early Android versions that had more coarse permission model.
The source code for Android is open-source: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2. Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance , with the source code publicly available at all times. Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.
The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom ,  and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.
These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.
More ways to enhance your app
Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant , because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or uninstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.
Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google's compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document. Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version "Google Now Launcher", whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.
Apps that do not use Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only use APIs contained within the OS itself. In March , it was reported that Google had begun to block "uncertified" Android devices from using Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that "the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google".
Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps , but incorporated portions of Android's platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software. Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated.
Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android. Nokia was quoted as saying "we don't see this as a threat," and a member of Microsoft's Windows Mobile team stated "I don't understand the impact that they are going to have.
Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system   and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available". As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms. Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.
These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android's popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected. Android has suffered from "fragmentation",  a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.
For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July , there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS. They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the "lowest common denominator" to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.
Android (operating system)
Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of , that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of , Gartner estimated that more than half In July , Google said that , Android devices were being activated every day,  up from , per day in May,  and more than million devices had been activated  with 4. Android market share varies by location. In April Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while "only in Japan was Apple on top" September—November numbers.
Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter , which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated "mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia",  with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt , such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the Western world commonly include Google's proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; "ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of , up from 54 million in the first quarter"; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on AOSP source code, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January Gartner report, "Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in , and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in , with a 26 percent increase year over year.
Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to "reach two billion units in ", including Android. According to a Statistica 's estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1. In the second quarter of , Android's share of the global smartphone shipment market was According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.
Support different platform versions | Android Developers
In September , Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in , early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple's iPad was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific iOS applications. This approach, such as with the Dell Streak , failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets.
An exception was the Amazon Kindle Fire , which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon's ecosystem of applications and content. As of the end of , over It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as Apple 's iOS devices are". Android 8. Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on October 26, As of October [update] , In general, paid Android applications can easily be pirated.
In , Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack. Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution. The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits and other legal challenges.
On August 12, , Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. They said that Android's Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony , a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.
In December , Google announced that the next major release of Android Android Nougat would switch to OpenJDK , which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime. Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In , FairSearch , a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the European Commission , alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive predatory pricing.
On October 16, , Google announced that it would change its distribution model for Google Mobile Services in the EU, since part of its revenues streams for Android which came through use of Google Search and Chrome were now prohibited by the EU's ruling. Google Search will be licensed separately, with an option to include Google Chrome at no additional cost atop Search. European OEMs are able to bundle third-party alternatives on phones and devices sold to customers, if they so choose. OEMs will no longer be barred from selling any device running incompatible versions of Android in Europe.
In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market. Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.
Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS , for wearable devices such as wrist watches,   Android TV for televisions,   and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things. The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks ,   and desktop computers,  cameras,  headphones,  home automation systems, game consoles,  media players,  satellites,  routers ,  printers ,  payment terminals ,  automated teller machines ,  and robots.
In , Google demonstrated "Android Home", a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats. Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers' homes. Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system known as Asteroid in ,  followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in In December , one reviewer commented that Android's notification system is "vastly more complete and robust than in most environments" and that Android is "absolutely usable" as one's primary desktop operating system.
The software is available for developers, and was released in The mascot of Android is a green android robot , as related to the software's name. Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it "Bugdroid". It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, when Android was announced. Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon,  Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source.
The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Android disambiguation. Free and open-source operating system for mobile devices, developed by Google.
Current logotype top and typeface bottom. Google , Open Handset Alliance. Apache License 2. See also: Android version history. List of features in Android. Android software development and Google Play. Android hardware requirements. Main article: Android software development. Usage share of operating systems. Oreo Nougat Marshmallow Lollipop KitKat 4. Jelly Bean 2.
Ice Cream Sandwich 0. Froyo 0. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. December Old version. Older version, still supported. Latest version. Latest preview version. Future release. Further information: Smartphone wars and Patent troll. Oracle v. European Union vs. Open Hub. October 25, Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 15, Android Developers Blog. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 11, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 5, Internationalization Multi-locale support [..
Google APIs for Android
Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic. This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it. Archived from the original on December 3, Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original on March 14, Archived from the original on March 4, Android Source.
Archived from the original on December 15, Retrieved GMS is only available through a license with Google [.. The Verge. Android Central. Mobile Nations. Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 9, Past, Present, and Future". August 18, Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved March 12, Bloomberg Businessweek.
Bloomberg L. Archived from the original on February 5, We aimed to make a camera OS". PC World. International Data Group. Archived from the original on May 10, Retrieved May 9, Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 29, How a flailing startup became the world's biggest computing platform". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Archived from the original on May 20, Archived from the original on March 19, The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 6, Archived from the original on March 12, August 2, The Wall Street Journal.
Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved July 24, The Record Bergen County. Retrieved February 21, And don't hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won't be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz. Phone, anyone? Archived from the original on February 11, Archived from the original on March 25, Archived from the original on June 23, Android Police. Open Handset Alliance.
- Android version history.
- Device compatibility overview.
- Android versions and API levels!
- phone app missing iphone 4.
- Android Studio;
- Quick start?
- speed up ipad 1 jailbroken?
November 5, Archived from the original on March 2, Archived from the original on June 22, Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on March 17, Knowingly, Corp. July 3, Here's why Google names the OS after sweets". The Indian Express.
- technological applications of photoelectric effect!
- Terms and Conditions.
- opera mini para celular samsung galaxy ace plus.
- Check system version at runtime.
- talking tom cat nokia 500 chomikuj.
- Understanding Android API levels?
- download link ios 6.1 beta 5.
Indian Express Limited. Ars Technica. Archived from the original on June 24, Archived from the original on December 26, Archived from the original on November 29, The Inquirer. Incisive Media. The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Sundar Pichai". Archived from the original on January 14, Archived from the original on February 23, The Next Web. Android One". BBC News.
September 15, Archived from the original on November 1, Archived from the original on November 3, Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on May 11, CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on January 6, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved October 12, Android Open Source Project. Archived from the original on January 25, Android Developers. Archived from the original on February 16, Archived from the original on February 19, Archived from the original on March 31, Android Authority.
Archived from the original on May 1, Univision Communications. Archived from the original on January 8, For Dummies. Material Design. Archived from the original on March 22, Archived from the original on December 8, Archived from the original on May 3, Archived from the original on March 21, Archived from the original on March 29, Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on May 22, July 21, Archived from the original on June 13, Archived from the original on February 10, Controlling open source by any means necessary".
Archived from the original on March 10, Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved March 28, July 24, Archived from the original on January 2, Retrieved January 2, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved June 4, Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved November 16, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved May 15, Wired News. Retrieved February 20, June 26, Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved October 30, Cleveland State University.
Archived from the original PDF on February 22, Retrieved April 15, Stop Using Task Killer Apps". June 16, Archived from the original on February 17, Professional Android 4 Application Development. Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original on January 30, Archived from the original on March 6, MIPS gets sweet with Honeycomb".
EE Times. AspenCore Media. Retrieved July 17, Archived from the original on January 24, July 11, Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved February 9, The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved June 19, Android Developers Portal. Archived from the original on October 31, November 27, Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved November 15, February 10, Archived from the original on January 23, Retrieved March 21, Vulkan 1. Archived from the original on October 28, Retrieved November 1, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved September 22, Now powered by Android Marshmallow.
January 13, Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved April 7, How to install Android on your PC". Archived from the original on November 12, Archived from the original on September 29, Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved December 22, Future plc. Archived from the original on July 13, Archived from the original on January 7, Android M tomorrow, Android N in ". Archived from the original on December 25, Archived from the original on March 3, How-To Keep. There's blame enough to go around". Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved April 3, Consumer Reports.
Archived from the original on June 14, The Register. Situation Publishing. Archived from the original on February 13, Google is defragging Android". Archived from the original on September 3, Android 4. Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved March 15, Android OEMs to be ranked, shamed by update speed". Archived from the original on March 16, Google pressuring OEMs and carriers to speed up Android updates, security patches". Retrieved November 10, Linux kernel LTS releases are now good for 6 years". Archived from the original on November 11, August 6, Retrieved August 7, Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved June 20, May 13, Archived from the original on January 4, December 5, Archived from the original on January 9, Linux Foundation.
Archived from the original on June 29, Archived from the original on October 15, Linux kernel monkey log. Google will hire two Android coders to work with kernel. Archived from the original on June 17, A developer's introduction to Google Android". Archived from the original on July 4, September 7, Archived from the original on February 14, Archived from the original on February 18, Retrieved February 15, Archived from the original on August 26, February 28, Retrieved February 28, Archived from the original on August 27, Retrieved September 3, May 19, Archived from the original on September 22, Retrieved September 15, Archived from the original on September 1, Please Join us in Celebration".
Archived from the original on April 17, Retrieved April 16, Archived from the original on April 22, Retrieved March 14,